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Build a greater understanding of your problem and the people it impacts.

Cognitive walkthrough


An evaluation method in which people work through a set of representative tasks and ask questions about the task as they go.


To get quick and early feedback on whether a design solution is easy for a new or infrequent user to learn, and why it is or isn’t easy. This method is useful for catching big issues at any stage in the design process when you don’t have access to real users, but it is not a substitute for user evaluation.

Time required

30 minutes to one hour per person

How to do it

  1. Identify specific traits for new or infrequent users of a design solution.
  2. Develop a set of representative tasks that emphasize new use or infrequent use.
  3. Designate a member of the design team to play the role of a user. That person will use the traits you’ve identified to participate in a moderated usability testing session. (The traits can overlap.)
  4. Ask the user to accomplish their goal using a printed or interactive design. As they go, ask what they would attempt to do next or how they would learn.
  5. Don’t lead the user through the task, but encourage them to stay focused on what they’re trying to accomplish.
  6. Pay attention to expected outcomes and how quickly/easily participants are able to pick up a task.
  7. Analyze the walkthrough results to highlight where the user struggled and what needs improvement.

Considerations for use in government

No PRA implications. The PRA explicitly exempts direct observation and non-standardized conversation (e.g., not a survey) that a cognitive walkthrough entails, 5 CFR 1320.3(h)3.

If you are not working with government employees, you will need to observe standard precautions for archiving personally identifiable information.


18F Methods

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